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BIOCHEMISTRY AND IMMUNOLOGY



Biochemistry
Biochemistry


Immunology
Immunology

The Department of Biochemistry and Immunology at Crystal Diagnostics Pvt. Ltd assures a high quality service to patients and includes STAT and routine testing in the areas of general chemistry, endocrinology, special chemistry, immunology and toxicology. Biochemistry uses chemical processes to measure levels of several chemical components and immunoassay utilizes the unique antigen antibody binding for detection of several analytes in body fluids. The main specimens tested are serum, plasma, urine, cerebrospinal fluids along with other body fluids.

The laboratory has FDA approved technologies such as Beckman AU 480 fully automated biochemistry analyzer, Beckman Access 2 Immunoassay, and High performance Liquid Chromatography AS8.

Key parameters tested and their significance :

  • Carbohydrates: Glucose levels indicate the body’s efficiency in metabolizing glucose. Fasting and random glucose levels in blood help in the diagnosis of endocrinological disorders such as hypoglycemia and diabetes.
  • Lipids: Lipids are present in different forms as body fat, as part of cell membranes, and as sterols such as cholesterol. Lipid levels can help diagnose liver and heart disease in humans. For example, high levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides in blood are a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD).
  • Enzymes: Measuring the levels of enzymes released by organs into the blood can indicate problems with the particular organ. For example, levels of the enzyme creatine kinase in the body indicate heart or skeletal muscle damage.
  • Hormones: Hormones secreted by endocrine glands of our body regulate various processes. An increase or decrease in hormone levels can signal hyperactive or hypoactive glands respectively. For example, thyroxine (T4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) are secreted by the thyroid gland, and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and growth hormones are secreted by the pituitary gland.
  • Proteins: The concentration of proteins in the body can be indicative of nutritional and metabolic disorders and some forms of cancer. For example, total protein and albumin levels help diagnose liver or kidney disease in addition to malnutrition.
  • Electrolytes: The levels of various electrolytes such as sodium, chloride, potassium, calcium, bicarbonate, phosphorus, and magnesium in the body can help diagnose some kidney and metabolic disorders.
  • Metabolites: Some metabolic products can be measured to assess the functioning of certain organs. For example, levels of urea, nitrogen and creatinine in the blood are indicators of kidney function.
  • Tumor markers:  These are present in or produced  by cancer cells or other cells of the body in response to cancer or certain benign (noncancerous) conditions that provide information about a cancer, such as how aggressive it is, whether it can be treated with a targeted therapy, or whether it is responding to treatment. For example, CA 19-9, CA 125, CA 15-3, CEA, AFP, PSA etc.


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