What is Bone Mineral Density (BMD)?
Bone Mineral Density reflects the strength and solidness of bone.
What does Bone Mineral Density Test do?
BMD Test is the most sensitive and accurate method to diagnose osteoporosis.
What is Osteoporosis?
What are risk factors for osteoporosis?
Why should get BMD test?
Early detection of osteoporosis and prevention from fracture and its complications.
H-PYLORI BREATH TEST
What is H. pylori?
Helicobacter pylori (H.pylori) is a type of bacteria that is known to be a major cause of gastritis, peptic ulcer disease.
What does H. pylori breath test do?
This test is used for diagnosing the presence of a bacterium ( H.pylori) in stomach and also for monitoring the treatment.
How the test is performed?
Why should get H.pylori breath test?
For detection of H. pylori infection as it is associated with an increased risk of developing ulcers (peptic ulcer disease), chronic gastritis, and gastric (stomach) cancer.
Who should get H.pylori breath test?
Those who are experiencing gastrointestinal pain and has signs and symptoms of an ulcer. Some of these may include:
Serologic tests are blood tests that look for antibodies in your blood. They can involve a number of laboratory techniques. Different types of serologic tests are used to diagnose various disease conditions.
All the serological tests have one thing in common. They all focus on proteins made by the immune system. This system of our body helps to keep you healthy by destroying foreign invaders that can make you ill. The process for having the test is the same regardless of which technique the laboratory uses during serologic testing. There are three types of serological test.
|C-REACTIVE PROTEIN||Nephelometry/Latex agglutination|
|Rheumatoid Factor||Nephelometry/Latex agglutination|
|Dengue IgG/IgM, NS1||Immunochromatography/PCR|
|Brucella||Immunochromatography/ELISA/ PCR/Brucella agglutination Test|
|Scrub Tyhus Antibody||Immunochromatography/ELISA/PCR|
|Malarial antigen test||Immunochromatography|
|COVID-19 Ag test||Immunochromatography/ELISA/PCR|
|H. Pylori antibody||Immunochromatography/ELISA/PCR|
|H. Pylori antigen||Immunochromatography/ELISA/PCR|
Normal test results
Antibodies are produced in response to antigens. If testing shows no antibodies, it indicates there is no infection. Results that show there are no antibodies in the blood sample are normal.
Abnormal test results
Antibodies in the blood sample often mean our body has an immune system response to an antigen from either current or past exposure to a disease or foreign protein.
The presence of certain types of antibodies can also mean that you’re immune to one or more antigen. This means that future exposure to the antigen or antigens won’t result in illness.
The aim is to get a specimen (sample) of urine from the middle of your bladder. Urine is normally sterile (no bacteria present). If bacteria are found in the sample, it means that the urine is infected.
A midstream sample is best as the first bit of urine that you pass may be contaminated with bacteria from the skin. A urine bottle will be provided by the centre.
Prior to collecting the midstream urine specimen:
24 hr urine collection:
To ensure accurate test results, the following instructions below should be followed carefully. Some 24 hour urine tests require an additive in the container. It is recommended to consult physician prior to the test to make sure you have the correct container.
Collecting the specimen:
For 24 hr Creatinine Clearance: This test is used to measure kidney function and requires a blood test to be taken within 48 hours of the urine being collected. It is preferable to have the blood test when you deliver the completed urine specimen.
This test detects the presence of blood in the faeces. To ensure accurate test results, following instruction should be followed carefully.
For this test, you will need to collect faeces samples each day for three days in a row OR a sample from each of three consecutive bowel movements. The containers to use are tubes with a dipstick attached to the top.
Do not collect samples during, or until three days after a menstrual period.
Avoid taking Aspirin or other non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for seven days before the collection. (Please consult your physician first before withholding any medication).
Prior to this test, try to maintain a well-balanced diet of fruit and vegetables.
Before collection, brush your teeth, rinse your mouth well and gargle with water to reduce contamination with food particles.
(for micro & culture) collect 1 sample
(for cytology) collect 2 samples (1 sample per day, for 2 days)
Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced in the anterior, or front, pituitary gland in the brain. The function of ACTH is to regulate levels of the steroid hormone cortisol, which released from the adrenal gland. An ACTH test measures the levels of both ACTH and cortisol in the blood and helps to detect diseases that are associated with too much or too little cortisol in the body. Possible causes of these diseases include:
For the 12 hours before specimen collection it is not recommended to take multivitamins or dietary supplements containing biotin (vitamin B7), which is commonly found in hair, skin, and nail supplements and multivitamins.
Sample should be EDTA PLASMA.
A high level of ACTH may be a sign of:
A low level of ACTH may be a sign of:
A cortisol level test uses a blood sample to measure the level of cortisol present in your blood.
Cortisol is a steroid hormone released by the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands sit on top of your kidneys. A cortisol level test may also be called a serum cortisol test. Cortisol is the main hormone involved in stress and the fight-or-flight response. This is a natural and protective response to a perceived threat or danger. Increased levels of cortisol result in a burst of new energy and strength.
Why cortisol test is done ?
The cortisol level test is used to check if your cortisol production levels are either too high or too low. There are certain diseases, such as Addison’s disease and Cushing’s disease, which affect the amount of cortisol produced by adrenal glands. The test is used in the diagnosis of these diseases and as a way to assess the functioning of the adrenal and pituitary glands.
Cortisol plays a role in several systems in the body. These systems include:
Preparation for the test
There are certain drugs that affect cortisol levels.
Cortisol levels are sometimes increased by:
drugs containing oestrogen synthetic glucocorticoids, such as prednisone pregnancy.
Cortisol levels are sometimes decreased by:
Cortisol levels can also be affected by physical stress, emotional stress, and illness. This is due to the increased release of ACTH by the pituitary gland during the normal stress response.
Semen is composed of spermatozoa suspended in seminal fluid (plasma). The function of the seminal fluid is to provide nutrition and volume for conveying the spermatozoa to the endocervical mucus. Male infertility can be affected by a number of causes. Chief among these is a decrease in the number of viable sperm. Other causes include sperm with abnormal morphology and abnormalities of the seminal fluid.
Semen analysis test is done for determining male infertility status.
Sample collection /Pre analytical requirements
analytical results should be recorded.
(a) time of collection
(b) the number of days of ejaculatory abstinence
(c) storage conditions between collection and receipt into the laboratory
(d) whether any of the ejaculate was lost during collection.
Vanillylmandelic acid (VMA) is one of the breakdown products (metabolites) of epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine. Epinephrine and norepinephrine belong to a group of similar hormones called catecholamines. This test measures the amount of VMA that is passed into the urine, typically over a 24-hour period, to detect excess epinephrine and norepinephrine. It is used to detect tumors called neuroblastomas and other neuroendocrine tumors.
It also helps to monitor the effectiveness of treatment in curing neuroblastoma. This test is done if the symptoms like having lump in the abdomen (abdominal mass), bruising around the eyes, trouble walking, or bone pain are observed. It is also done if one have symptoms of increased catecholamine release, such as persistent or periodic high blood pressure, severe headaches, rapid heart rate, and sweating etc
Certain foods can increase urinary catecholamines, including coffee, tea, bananas, chocolate, cocoa, citrus fruits, and vanilla. Therefore these foods should be avoided for several days prior to the test. Acute stress and vigorous exercise may also affect the test results. Similarly there are some drugs which may also effect the results of the tests. Caffeine, acetaminophen, levodopa, lithium ,aminophylline, chloralhydrate, clonidine, disulfiram, erythromycin, insulin, Methenamine, methyldopa, nicotinic acid (large doses), quinidine, tetracyclines, nitroglycerin may increase the Urine VMA values. Likewise guanethidine, imipramine, MAO inhibitors, phenothiazines, salicylates, reserpine may decrease the Urine VMA. Therefore these drugs and diet should be avoided prior to the test.
For a 24-hour urine collection, all of the urine produced during a 24-hour period should be saved. It is important that the sample should be refrigerated during this time period. A single urine sample is also collected for a random urine test.
The reason to collect urine over a 24-hour period is because the amount of VMA released in the urine changes during the course of a day. By collecting all urine for 24 hours, the amount of VMA measured can be averaged over the entire day and will give a better indication of whether levels are increased or not.
The glucose challenge test measures your body’s response to sugar (glucose). The glucose challenge test is done during pregnancy to screen for gestational diabetes that develops during pregnancy.
The test is generally done between weeks 24 and 28 of pregnancy.
However, it can be done as early as first prenatal visit if you’re at high risk of gestational diabetes due to obesity, a personal history of gestational diabetes, a family history of diabetes or other factors.
Most women who have gestational diabetes deliver healthy babies. However, without careful management, gestational diabetes can lead to various pregnancy complications, such as excess fetal growth — which might increase the risk of birth injuries or prompt a C-section delivery.
Reason Why It is Conducted
The test is usually done to check for gestational diabetes in pregnant women. If a woman had developed gestational diabetes in a previous pregnancy, the test is conducted for every subsequent pregnancy. Women who are overweight at the time of getting pregnant are also recommended to have this test conducted. Women with polycystic ovarian syndrome should also get this test done because the chances of developing diabetes are quite high in this case.
No elaborate preparations are needed for the test. However, it is recommended that nothing should be eaten about eight hours prior to the test. Just before the test, you will have to drink a glucose solution quickly. About one hour later, blood is taken for the test. The one hour gap is taken because the glucose levels peak one hour after consumption of glucose and then begin to drop subsequently. This is only the first part. If the glucose challenge test results show that you have gestational diabetes, further diagnosis is done ie recommended for GTT test.
The glucose liquid is usually extremely sweet and you may begin to feel sick after drinking it. A lot of people have been known to vomit just after they have consumed the liquid. However, if vomiting happens, the test should be taken on another day again.
Though normal values differ, the usual normal range when 50 grams of glucose is taken and the screening test is done one hour later is lower than 140 mg/dL or 7.8 mmol/L; anything greater than that requires a further diagnostic test
The oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), also known as the glucose tolerance test, gauges the body’s ability to metabolize sugar (glucose) and clear it from the bloodstream. The OGTT can be used to diagnose diabetes 1 , gestational diabetes (diabetes during pregnancy), or prediabetes (elevated blood sugar predictive of type 2 diabetes).
Types of glucose Tolerance Test
Illustration by Emily Roberts, Verywell
Evaluation of the test.