The Complete Guide to Thyroid and Why You Should Care

Thyroid is an endocrine gland. Thyroid gland is present at the neck region and two lobes of the gland are present on both sides of the trachea connected by the isthmus. It is an important part of the endocrine system, which produces hormones that regulate the body’s metabolism and energy levels. The thyroid produces two main hormones: thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3). These hormones help control the body’s heart rate, body temperature, and metabolism.

The pituitary gland, which is located in the brain, regulates the thyroid gland. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is produced by the pituitary gland and stimulates the thyroid to create and release hormones. When thyroid hormone levels in the body are too low, the pituitary gland produces more TSH to stimulate the thyroid to create more hormones. When thyroid hormone levels are too high, the pituitary gland lowers the quantity of TSH released, slowing thyroid hormone production.

There are several types of thyroid conditions that can occur, including hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.There are several types of thyroid conditions that can occur, including hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism. Hypothyroidism occurs when the thyroid gland does not generate enough hormones, resulting in symptoms such as tiredness, weight gain, and dry skin. Hyperthyroidism, on the other hand, occurs when the thyroid gland generates an excess of hormones, resulting in symptoms such as weight loss, increased appetite, and tremors.

Thyroid problems are frequently caused by an imbalance in the body’s thyroid hormone production. A number of factors can lead to this, including autoimmune illnesses, radiation treatment, and some drugs. If left untreated, thyroid conditions can lead to serious health complications such as high cholesterol, heart disease, nerve damage, osteoporosis, and an irregular heartbeat (arrhythmia).

Treatment options for thyroid conditions may include medications, such as thyroid hormone replacement therapy or beta-blockers, or in some cases, surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid gland. It is also important to follow a healthy lifestyle, including eating a balanced diet and getting regular exercise, to support thyroid health.

Treatment options for thyroid conditions may include medications, such as thyroid hormone replacement therapy or beta-blockers, or, in some cases, surgery to remove part or all of the thyroid gland. It is also important to follow a healthy lifestyle, including eating a balanced diet and getting regular exercise, to support thyroid health.

Hence, it is essential to check thyroid function on a regular basis and address any imbalances as soon as possible. It is possible to effectively control thyroid issues and maintain good overall health with proper treatment.

The Thyroid Function Test is available at Crystal Diagnostic. Book your appointment now!

Understanding and Prioritizing Women’s health

Women’s health is a topic that is often neglected, but it must be prioritized. After all, your health status and well-being can have an impact on every aspect of your life, from your relationships to your profession to your mental and physical health. It covers a wide range of topics, including reproductive health, fertility, pregnancy, menopause, and other women-specific issues.

It’s always a good idea to remain informed on women’s health issues. Menopause, endometriosis, and osteoporosis are all examples of this. You may play an active part in your own health by learning about these conditions and how to manage them.

Another aspect of women’s health that is often overlooked is sexual health. This includes getting tested for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and using protection during sex to avoid unplanned pregnancies and STIs. It is also critical to discuss openly and honestly with your sexual partners about your sexual health.

It’s also critical to take care of your emotional wellness. This includes taking time to relax and de-stress, as well as seeking help if you are suffering from anxiety or depression. Exercise and a nutritious diet are also essential for physical and mental wellness.

There are several things that women can do to prevent or manage some of the most common issues that affect their health. These include:

  1. Frequent check-ups and screenings: By undergoing regular check-ups and screenings, women can catch any potential health problems early on, when they are most treatable. Mammograms for breast cancer, pap smears for cervical cancer, and bone density tests for osteoporosis are examples.
  2. Maintaining a healthy lifestyle: A healthy lifestyle can help avoid or manage numerous health problems. This involves eating a nutritious diet, exercising regularly, and refraining from smoking or using tobacco products.
  3. Stress management: Stress can negatively affect both physical and mental health. Women must discover healthy ways to cope with stress, such as through exercise, meditation, or counselling.
  4. Safe sex: Using protection during sex, such as condoms, can help avoid the transmission of sexually transmitted infections (STIs). It is also critical to get frequent STI testing and to discuss openly and honestly about sexual health with sexual partners.
  5. Seeking medical attention when necessary: It is important to seek medical attention if you are having any unusual symptoms or have concerns about your health. Early detection and treatment can frequently improve outcomes and prevent subsequent issues.

By taking these preventive measures, women can reduce their risk of developing many of the most common health issues that affect them. It is also important to remember that everyone’s health needs are different, and it is always a good idea to talk to a healthcare professional about what steps are best for you.

Taking care of your health as a woman can be overwhelming at times, but it’s so important. By making self-care a priority, getting regular check-ups and screenings, paying attention to your mental health, and staying informed about women’s health issues, you can live a happier and healthier life.

Food Allergies: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Management

A food allergy is a condition in which the immune system of the body reacts abnormally to certain foods. When a person consumes or comes into contact with even a small quantity of the allergy-causing food, their body mounts an immune response, resulting in symptoms such as stomach issues, hives, or swollen airways. Food allergy affects an estimated 8% of children under age 5 and up to 4% of adults. While there’s no cure, some children outgrow their food allergies as they get older.

A food allergy is easily confused with a much more frequent reaction known as food intolerance. Unlike allergies, food intolerances are never harmful. A larger amount of food is required to cause an intolerance, and the symptoms of a food intolerance usually appear several hours after eating the food.

Food allergies occur when the immune system, the body’s defense against infection, misidentifies proteins in food as a threat. Almost any food can trigger an allergic reaction, but certain foods, such as peanuts, tree nuts, shellfish, fish, milk, eggs, and soy, are responsible for the majority of food allergies.

For some people, an allergic reaction to a particular food may be painful but not severe. For other people, an allergic food reaction can be frightening and even life-threatening. Food allergy symptoms normally appear within a few minutes to two hours of consuming the  food. In rare cases, symptoms may be delayed for several hours.

The most common food allergy signs and symptoms include:

  • Rash or hives
  • Swelling of the lips, face, tongue, or throat
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Chest pain
  • Nausea, vomiting, or diarrhoea

In some people, a food allergy can trigger a severe allergic reaction called anaphylaxis. This can cause life-threatening signs and symptoms, including:

  • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
  • Chest pain or tightness
  • Rapid or weak pulse
  • Lightheadedness or loss of consciousness
  • Swelling of the face, lips, tongue, or throat

Anaphylaxis requires immediate treatment. Anaphylaxis, if left untreated, can result in a coma or even death.

The easiest way to avoid an allergic response is to identify and avoid the allergenic food.This may include carefully reading ingredient labels, keeping allergy medications on hand at all times, and informing restaurant staff of their allergies when dining out.

If you suspect you have a food allergy, you should consult a doctor for a proper diagnosis and treatment. They can help you figure out which foods are causing your symptoms and develop a plan to manage your allergy.

Food and Inhalation Allergy Panel is available at Crystal Diagnostic. Get tested today so that you can avoid them.

Cervical Cancer: What You Need to Know

Cervical cancer is a form of cancer that affects the cervix, which connects the uterus to the vagina. It is a slow-growing cancer that may not cause symptoms in the early stages, but if left untreated, it can spread to other parts of the body.

The main cause of cervical cancer is infection with specific forms of human papillomavirus (HPV). HPV is a prevalent sexually transmitted infection that can be avoided with vaccination. Other risk factors for cervical cancer include smoking, having multiple sexual partners, and having a weakened immune system.

Cervical cancer symptoms include abnormal vaginal bleeding, abnormal vaginal discharge, and pelvic pain. However, these symptoms can also be caused by other problems, so it is important to contact a doctor if you experience any of them.

The Pap test (commonly known as a Pap smear) and the HPV test are two screening procedures that can help detect cervical cancer early. The Pap test looks for abnormalities in cervix cells, whereas the HPV test searches for HPV DNA in cervical cells. These tests can be performed as part of a routine pelvic exam.

Cervical cancer treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy. The type of treatment recommended will be determined by the stage of the cancer and the patient’s overall condition.

Women should get frequent cervical cancer tests beginning at the age of 21, or within three years of becoming sexually active, whichever comes first. Getting an HPV vaccine and practicing safe sex can also help lower the risk of developing cervical cancer.

If you are sexually active, it is important to protect yourself against HPV and other sexually transmitted infections by using condoms and getting vaccinated. If you are a smoker, quitting smoking can also help reduce your risk of developing cervical cancer.

To conclude, cervical cancer is a serious condition that can be prevented and treated if detected early. You can protect yourself and stay healthy by getting frequent checkups and taking steps to reduce your risk.

Prostate Cancer 101: An Overview of this Common Disease

Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that affects the prostate, a tiny gland in the male reproductive system. The prostate, which is located just below the bladder and in front of the rectum, is in charge of producing some of the fluid in sperm. Prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer in males, after skin cancer.

Prostate cancer is often slow-growing cancer, and many men with prostate cancer will never have symptoms or require treatment. However, certain cases of prostate cancer are aggressive and require treatment.

Prostate cancer symptoms include trouble urinating, a weak urine flow, blood in the urine or sperm, and pain in the hips, pelvis, or back. It’s essential to remember that these symptoms can also be caused by other conditions, so seeing a doctor for a proper diagnosis is important.

Age, family history, and race are all risk factors for prostate cancer. Those over the age of 50 and men with a family history of prostate cancer are more likely to develop the disease.

Prostate cancer can be detected using a variety of techniques, including a digital rectal exam, a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test, and a prostate biopsy. The PSA test is used as a screening tool that helps in the early detection of prostate cancer. PSA levels in men with prostate cancer are often elevated, but raised PSA levels can also be caused by other illnesses, such as an enlarged prostate or a prostate infection. A man’s PSA level may not always indicate that he has prostate cancer.

It is important for men to discuss the risks and benefits of the PSA test with their doctor in order to make an informed decision about whether or not to undergo the test. If a man decides to undergo the PSA test and the findings are abnormal, additional testing, such as a prostate biopsy, may be required to discover the cause, in which a small sample of tissue from the prostate is removed and studied under a microscope.

Prostate cancer treatment options include surgery, radiation therapy, and hormone therapy. The optimal treatment option will be determined by the cancer’s stage, the patient’s age, and overall health, as well as the patient’s preferences.

Prostate cancer is a serious disease, but early detection and treatment can boost your chances of a positive outcome. It is important for men to speak openly with their doctor about their risk of developing prostate cancer and have regular check-ups and screenings.

A PSA test is available at Crystal Diagnostic.

Get screened today and be safe!  

Kidney Diseases: An Overview

The kidneys are a pair of bean-shaped organs located on either side of the spine, just below the ribcage. They are an integral part of the urinary system, and their main function is to filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood and excrete them from the body as urine.

Kidney diseases are a group of disorders that affect the kidneys and their ability to function properly. These disorders can range from mild to severe, and they can have a range of symptoms and consequences.

Some common types of kidney diseases include:

  • Acute kidney injury: This is a sudden and temporary loss of kidney function that can be caused by a variety of factors, including infection, injury, or the use of certain medications.
  • Chronic kidney disease: This is a long-term, progressive loss of kidney function that can be caused by a variety of conditions, including diabetes, high blood pressure, and autoimmune diseases.
  • Polycystic kidney disease: This is a genetic disorder that is characterized by the development of numerous cysts (fluid-filled sacs) in the kidneys, which can lead to kidney damage and failure.
  • Glomerulonephritis: This is a group of kidney diseases that are characterized by inflammation and scarring of the tiny blood vessels (glomeruli) in the kidneys, which can lead to kidney damage and failure.

Kidney diseases can have a range of symptoms, including swelling in the ankles and feet, fatigue, and changes in urine output. They can also have serious consequences, such as an increased risk of heart disease and stroke, and can lead to kidney failure, which may require dialysis or a kidney transplant.

If you are at an increased risk for kidney diseases due to factors such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or a family history of kidney disease, it is important to get regular check-ups and screenings to detect any problems early on. It is also important to maintain a healthy lifestyle, including eating a healthy diet, getting regular exercise, and not smoking, to help prevent kidney diseases.

In conclusion, kidney diseases are a group of disorders that can have a range of symptoms and consequences. It is important to be aware of your risk and to take steps to prevent or manage these diseases to maintain optimal kidney health.

Men’s Health: Let’s Talk about it

Men’s health encompasses a wide range of topics, including physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Some common areas of focus in men’s health include:

  1. Physical health: This can include maintaining a healthy weight, exercising regularly, getting enough sleep, and managing chronic conditions like diabetes or high blood pressure.
  2. Mental health: Men’s mental health is just as important as their physical health. This can include managing stress, dealing with depression or anxiety, and maintaining healthy relationships.
  3. Reproductive health: Men’s reproductive health includes issues related to fertility, sexually transmitted infections, and prostate health.
  4. Heart health: Heart disease is a leading cause of death among men, so it’s important to take steps to maintain heart health by eating a healthy diet, exercising regularly, and managing risk factors like high blood pressure and high cholesterol.
  5. Cancer prevention: Men are at higher risk for certain types of cancer, including prostate and testicular cancer. Regular screenings and healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent or catch cancer early.

It’s important for men to prioritize their health and take steps to maintain their well-being. This can include regular check-ups with a healthcare provider, engaging in healthy behaviors like exercise and a healthy diet, and seeking support when needed.

Men’s health in Nepal is affected by a variety of factors, including cultural, economic, and environmental conditions. Some common health concerns for men in Nepal include:

  1. Cardiovascular disease: Cardiovascular disease, including heart disease and stroke, is a leading cause of death among men in Nepal. Risk factors for cardiovascular disease include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and tobacco use.
  2. Cancer: Cancer is a leading cause of death among men in Nepal, with common types including lung, stomach, and liver cancer.
  3. Infectious diseases: Nepal has a high burden of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis, HIV/AIDS, and hepatitis.
  4. Mental health: Mental health issues, such as depression and anxiety, are common among men in Nepal.
  5. Occupational health: Many men in Nepal work in hazardous occupations, which can increase their risk of work-related injuries and illnesses.

To address these and other health concerns, it is important for men in Nepal to have access to quality healthcare and to engage in healthy behaviors such as regular exercise, a healthy diet, and not smoking. It is also important for men to seek medical care and support for mental health issues.

There are many steps that men can take to prevent health problems and maintain good overall health. Here are some tips:

  1. Get regular check-ups: It’s important for men to see a healthcare provider regularly for check-ups and screenings. This can help catch health problems early and prevent them from becoming more serious.
  2. Eat a healthy diet: A diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean proteins can help men maintain a healthy weight and reduce their risk of chronic diseases like heart disease and diabetes.
  3. Exercise regularly: Regular exercise is important for maintaining good physical and mental health. Aim for at least 30 minutes of moderate-intensity activity, such as brisk walking or cycling, every day.
  4. Manage stress: Stress can take a toll on both physical and mental health. It’s important to find healthy ways to manage stress, such as through exercise, meditation, or talking to a mental health professional.
  5. Get enough sleep: Adequate sleep is essential for good physical and mental health. Aim for 7-9 hours of sleep per night.
  6. Don’t smoke: Smoking is a leading cause of preventable death and disease. If you smoke, quitting can greatly improve your health.
  7. Limit alcohol consumption: Excessive alcohol consumption can increase the risk of health problems such as liver disease and certain types of cancer. It’s important to drink in moderation.

By following these tips and engaging in healthy behaviors, men can help prevent health problems and maintain good overall health.

Heart Disease: The leading cause of death in Nepal

Heart disease, also known as cardiovascular disease, is a broad term that refers to a range of conditions that affect the heart and blood vessels. It is a leading cause of death worldwide and is responsible for more deaths than any other disease. Heart disease is a leading cause of death in Nepal, as it is in many countries around the world. According to data from the World Health Organization (WHO), cardiovascular diseases (which include heart disease and stroke) accounted for approximately 30% of all deaths in Nepal in 2019. This is significantly higher than the global average, which is approximately 17%.

Risk factors for heart disease include high blood pressure, high cholesterol, smoking, obesity, lack of physical activity, unhealthy diet, diabetes, and a family history of heart disease. Many of these risk factors can be controlled or modified through lifestyle changes, such as eating a healthy diet, getting regular physical activity, and not smoking.

There are several types of heart disease, and the most common types can vary depending on the population being studied. Here is a list of the top 10 most common types of heart disease:

  1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease and occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become narrowed or blocked, leading to a decrease in blood flow to the heart muscle.
  2. Heart failure: This occurs when the heart is unable to pump enough blood to meet the body’s needs.
  3. Hypertension (high blood pressure): This is a condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries is consistently higher than normal. High blood pressure can lead to heart disease and other health problems.
  4. Atrial fibrillation: This is a type of irregular heartbeat that can increase the risk of stroke and other complications.
  5. Valvular heart disease: This occurs when the valves in the heart are damaged or not functioning properly, which can affect the flow of blood through the heart.
  6. Cardiomyopathy: This is a condition in which the heart muscle becomes weak or stiff, leading to impaired function.
  7. Heart attack (myocardial infarction): This occurs when a blockage in the coronary arteries causes a reduction in blood flow to the heart muscle, leading to damage or death of heart tissue.
  8. Aortic aneurysm: This is a ballooning or bulging of the aorta, the main artery carrying blood from the heart to the rest of the body.
  9. Pulmonary embolism: This occurs when a blood clot becomes lodged in the arteries of the lungs, causing blockage of blood flow and potentially leading to heart damage.
  10. Cardiac arrest: This is a sudden loss of heart function, often caused by an electrical problem in the heart. It can lead to sudden cardiac death if not treated promptly.

Symptoms of heart disease may include chest pain, shortness of breath, heart palpitations, and fatigue. If you are experiencing any of these symptoms, it is important to see a healthcare professional for evaluation and treatment. Treatment options for heart disease may include medications, lifestyle changes, and medical procedures such as angioplasty or surgery.

Preventing heart disease is important to maintain a healthy heart and blood vessels. Some steps you can take to reduce your risk of heart disease include:

  • Eating a healthy diet that is low in saturated and trans fats and high in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains
  • Getting regular physical activity
  • Not smoking
  • Managing stress
  • Maintaining a healthy weight
  • Monitoring and controlling blood pressure and cholesterol levels
  • Getting regular check-ups with a healthcare professional

By taking these steps and working with a healthcare professional, you can help reduce your risk of developing heart disease and improve your overall health.

The Complete Guide to STDs and How They Affect Your Health

According to WHO, more than 1 million sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are acquired every day around the world, the majority of which are asymptomatic.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) are a group of infectious diseases that are passed from one person to another through sexual contact, including vaginal, anal, and oral sex. Some STDs can be transmitted by other means as well, such as from mother to baby during pregnancy or breastfeeding. All STDs are caused by Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs), but some of them never become diseases, especially if they’re treated, and they can even go away on their own.

There are multiple kinds of STDs, which can be divided into three groups: bacterial, viral, and parasitic. Bacterial STDs are caused by bacteria and include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and trichomoniasis. Viral STDs are caused by viruses and include HIV/AIDS, genital herpes, genital warts, and viral hepatitis. Parasitic STDs are caused by parasites and include pubic lice (crabs), scabies (mites), or hookworms.

STDs don’t always cause symptoms or may only cause mild symptoms. So it is possible to have an infection and not know it. But you can still pass it on to others. Symptoms of STDs vary depending on the type of infection and the person’s immune system. Some common symptoms include unusual discharge from the penis or vagina, sores or warts on the genital area, painful or frequent urination, itching and redness in the genital area, blisters or sores in or around the mouth, abnormal vaginal odor, fever, etc.

Sexually transmitted diseases are one of the leading causes of illness and death worldwide. They are highly prevalent, especially among young people, and can lead to infertility, cancer, and other serious health consequences. Most STDs affect both men and women, but in many cases, the health problems they cause can be more severe for women. If a pregnant woman has an STD, it can cause serious health problems for the baby.

Some STDs are curable with medical treatment, while others can be managed to control symptoms and reduce the risk of transmission. Antibiotics can treat diseases such as Chlamydia, Gonorrhea, Syphilis, and Trichomoniasis. There is no cure for STDs caused by viruses, but medicines can often help with the symptoms and lower your risk of spreading the infection.

Prevention of STDs is not just about wearing a condom. It is also about being aware of the risks and taking preventive measures to avoid contracting an STD. The most important way to avoid STDs is to abstain from sexual intercourse or to be in a mutually monogamous relationship with an uninfected partner. If this is not possible, then use latex condoms or other barrier methods every time you have sex. Vaccines are safe, effective, and recommended ways to prevent hepatitis B and HPV.

So, the best way to prevent getting infected with STDs is to get regularly screened and practice safer sex. And if you test positive for any STD, seek treatment as soon as possible.

Diabetes: Everything You Need to Know

Diabetes affects more than 500,000 people in Nepal, and this number will rise to 1,500,000 by 2030. 


Diabetes mellitus, more commonly known as “diabetes”, is a chronic condition in which the body cannot regulate blood sugar levels properly. The pancreas produces insulin, which is a hormone that helps to control blood sugar levels. When someone has diabetes, their body can’t make enough insulin or doesn’t react to it normally. This causes high blood sugar levels.

Genetics, lifestyle and environment can be causes of diabetes. Eating an unhealthy diet, being overweight or obese and not exercising enough may play a role in developing diabetes, particularly Type 2 diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is caused by an autoimmune response. The body’s immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas.

There are four major types of diabetes explained below:

  • Type 1 diabetes: This type is an autoimmune disease, meaning your body attacks itself. In this case, the insulin-producing cells in your pancreas are destroyed. Up to 10% of people who have diabetes have Type 1. It’s usually diagnosed in children and young adults (but can develop at any age). People with Type 1 diabetes need to take insulin every day. This is why it is also called insulin-dependent diabetes.
  • Type 2 diabetes: With this type, your body either doesn’t make enough insulin or your body’s cells don’t respond normally to the insulin. This is the most common type of diabetes. Up to 95% of people with diabetes have Type 2. It usually occurs in middle-aged and older people. Other common names for Type 2 include adult-onset diabetes and insulin-resistant diabetes.
  • Prediabetes: This type is the stage before Type 2 diabetes. Your blood glucose levels are higher than normal but not high enough to be officially diagnosed with Type 2 Diabetes.
  • Gestational diabetes: This type develops in some women during their pregnancy. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after pregnancy. However, if you have gestational diabetes you’re at higher risk of developing Type 2 diabetes later on in life.

It is important to be aware of the signs and symptoms and know how to prevent diabetes. The key indicators of diabetes are excessive thirst, frequent urination, excessive hunger, weight loss and fatigue, increased thirst, dry mouth, and frequent unexplained infections.

Over time, diabetes can damage the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys, and nerves. It is among the leading causes of kidney failure. The higher your blood sugar is and the longer you live with it, the greater your risk for complications.

Both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes can be treated through certain lifestyle changes and proper medications. The treatment for Type 1 diabetes is the lifelong use of insulin. Type 2 diabetes can be managed by changes in lifestyle, exercise, changes in diet, use of medications, and taking insulin. To reduce the risk of developing gestational diabetes, a person should maintain a moderate weight before becoming pregnant. Even small changes can have a huge impact on managing diabetes or preventing it all together—so get to a doctor today and get tested.

A diabetes profile test is available at Crystal Diagnostic. Get diagnosed early and prevent yourself from getting diabetes, “the silent killer”.